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The Jerusalem Syndrome in Archaeology: Jehoash to James


[1] Bar-El,Y., Durst, R., Katz, G., Zislin, J., and Knobler, H.Y. “Jerusalem syndrome.” The British Journal of Psychiatry 176 (2000): 86-90.

[2] Gaon, B. “Blazing stones.” Ma’ariv daily newspaper, 6 Mar. 2003 (Hebrew).

[3] Bordreuil, P., Israel, F., and Pardee, D. “Deux ostraca paléo-hébreux de la Collection Sh. Moussaieff.” Semitica 46 (1996): 49-76. Bordreuil, P., Israel, F., and Pardee, D. “King’s command and Widow’s Plea. Two new Hebrew ostraca of the Biblical Period.” Near Eastern Archaeology 61 (1998): 2-13.

[4] Shanks, H. “Three Shekels for the Lord, ancient inscription records gift to Solomon’s Temple.” Biblical Archaeology Review Nov./Dec. 1997:28-32. Shanks, H. “The ‘Three Shekels’ and ‘Widow’s Plea’ ostraca: real or fake?” Biblical Archaeology Review May/June 2003:40-45.

[5] Hornytzkyj, S. “Preliminary analysis report on six terracotta artefacts.” (1997) Unpublished report submitted by Microfocus Oy laboratory, Helsinki. (6 text pages + 8 figures and graphs).

[6] Shanks, 1997 (above, note 4).

[7] Gaon, 2003 (above, note 2).

[8] Ephal, I., and Naveh, J. “Remarks on the recently published Moussaieff ostraca.” Israel Exploration Journal 48/3-4 (1998): 269-273.

[9] Land, H-T., and Feucht, G. “Expertise, Sample No. PE 257-1, Sample No. PE 257-5.” Undated and unpublished report submitted by Aventis Research & Technologies, Frankfurt (15 text pages including figures and graphs).

[10] From reading the original report (above, note 5), it becomes evident that although modern materials were detected and the crystalline features of the calcite in the patina of the two ostraca differed from those of the reference group, the researcher still suggested that the patina of the former might be original. This was based on the presence of amorphous silica (actually from the opalline phytoliths within the grassy ash) and a siliceous layer coating, the otherwise calcitic patina. However, such composition and microstructure may be created artificially by mixing commercial burnt lime with grass ash (made mostly of opalline phytoliths) because of the pozzuolanic reaction and the formation of calcium-silica gel. The micron-sized bipyramidal structure of the calcite crystals in the ostraca patina, as observed by SEM, indicates their crystallization from burnt lime. For a detailed discussion on these features in plaster products and further references, see: Goren, Y., Goring-Morris, A.N., and Segal, I. “The technology of skull modeling in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic B (PPNB): Regional variability, the relation of technology and iconography and their archaeological implications.” Journal of Archaeological Science 28/7 (2001):671-690.

[11] Shanks, 2003 (above, note 4).

[12] Gaon, 2003 (above, note 2).

[13] Gaon, 2003 (above, note 2).

[14] V. Sussman, personal communication.

[15] Gaon, 2003 (above, note 2).

[16] V. Sussman, personal communication.

[17] Shanks, H., and Witherington III, B. The Brother of Jesus, the Dramatic Story & Meaning of the First Archaeological Link to Jesus & His Family. (2003). HarperCollins Publishers, New York, pp. 16-21.

[18] Lemair, A. “Burial box of James the brother of Jesus, earliest archaeological avidence of Jesus found in Jerusalem.” Biblical Archaeology Review Nov./Dec. 2002: 24-33, 70.

[19] Shanks and Witherington III, 2003 (above, note 17), pp. 16-21.

[20] Altman, R. “Official report on the James ossuary.” Bible and Interpretation (2003).

[21] Cross, F.M. “Discussion Between Frank Moore Cross, Andre Lemaire And Hershel Shanks Biblical Archaeology Society (2003).

[22] Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M., and Goren, Y. “Authenticity examination of the inscription on the ossuary attributed to James, brother of Jesus.” Journal of Archaeological Science (in press).

[23] Lemaire, A. “Israel Antiquities Authority report deeply flawed.” Biblical Archaeology Society (2003).  Keall, E.J. “New tests bloster case for authenticity.” Biblical Archaeology Society (2003).

[24] Witherington III, B. “Bones of contention, why I still think the bone box is likely to be authentic.” Christianity Today (2003).

[25] For a full and relatively updated review of the James Ossuary affair, see: Ransom, I. Mary and the Ossuary, Beneath the “Brother of Jesus Forgery” (2003). USA: Xlibris Corporation (city of publication unmentioned).

[26] Gaon, 2003 (above, note 2).

[27] Shragai, N. “The Geological Survey: ‘The Jehoash Inscription’ is not a forgery.” Haaretz daily newspaper, 14 Jan. 2003 (Hebrew).

[28] Shanks, H. “Assessing the Jehoash inscription.” Biblical Archaeology Review May/June 2003: 26-31.

[29] Ilani, S., Rosenfeld, A., and Dvorachek, M. “Archaeometry of a stone tablet with Hebrew inscription referring to repair of The House.” Israel Geological Survey Current Research 13 (2002): 109-116.

[30] Shragai, 2003 (above, note 27) quotes some of these fantastic conclusions regarding the gilded temple’s walls burning over the Jehoash inscription (after being set in fire by Nebuzaradan, the captain of the guard of Nabuchadnezzar, the King of Babylonia).

[31] Shragai, 2003 (above, note 27).

[32] Cross, F.M. “Notes on the forged plaque recording repairs to the temple.” Israel Exploration Journal 53/1(2003): 119-122. Ephal, I. “The ‘Jehoash Inscription’: a forgery.” Israel Exploration Journal 53/1 (2003): 124-128.

[33] Goren, Y. “The authenticity of the Jehoash inscription: an alternative interpretation.Bible and Interpretation 2003. Goren, Y. “An alternative interpretation of the stone tablet with ancient Hebrew inscription attributed to Jehoash, King of Judah.Bible and Interpretation 2003.

[34] Goren, Y., Ayalon, A., Bar-Matthews, M., and Schilman, B. “Authenticity Examination of the Jehoash Inscription.” Tel Aviv (2004, in press).

[35] Silberman, N, and Goren, Y. “Faking biblical history, how wishful thinking and technology fooled some scholars – and made fools of others.” Archaeology Sept./Oct. 2003: 20-29.

[36] Harrell, J.A. “Final blow to IAA Report: Flawed geochemistry used to condemn James inscription.” Biblical Archaeology Review Jan./Feb. 2004.

[37] Ayalon, et al. in press (above, note 22).

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