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Pilate, the Politics of Rome, and Evangelical Politics

NOTES

[1] For the many other references to the Gospels, Rabbinica, and secondary literature relevant here, together with chronology, see Rabbi Jesus. An Intimate Biography (New York: Doubleday, 2000). The present essay was prepared originally for a symposium entitled "Jesus’ Death and Anti-Semitism" at the House of the Redeemer in Manhattan, sponsored by Auburn Theological Seminary, the Ecumenical and Interfaith Commission of the Episcopal Diocese of New York, and the Institute of Advanced Theology at Bard College. My principal partner in the symposium, Professor Jacob Neusner, has published his findings as "Good Friday and Easter Sunday. Reading the Passion Narratives in the Context of the Mishnah's Rabbinic Theology, or: How, in the Mishnah, the Death Penalty is Merciful" New Blackfriars 85 (2004) 239-246.

[2] The unfortunate history of Sejanus is discussed in the ancient histories of Dio Cassius, Suetonius, and Tacitus, supported by other sources; see Barbara Levick, Tiberius the Politician: Aspects of Greek and Roman Life (London: Thames and Hudson, 1976); Charles Merivale, History of the Romans under the Empire 5 (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1903); Robin Seager, Tiberius (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972); David Shotter, Tiberius Caesar: Aspects of Greek and Roman Life (London: Thames and Hudson, 1976); Charles Merivale, History of the Romans under the Empire 5 (London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1903); Robin Seager, Tiberius (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972); David Shotter, Tiberius Caesar: Lancaster Pamphlets (London and New York: Routledge, 1992). For the particular relevance to Jesus of Sejanus’ rise to power and eventual fall, see also Harold W. Hoehner, Herod Antipas. A Contemporary of Jesus Christ (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1980). David Kennedy and Martin Goodman provide a panoramic view of the political situation that Caiaphas, Jesus, and Pilate all had to deal with in their articles on Syria and Judea in The Cambridge Ancient History X (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996). 703-736, 737-781.

[3] This was Pilate’s title, not the later "procurator."

[4] R. E. Brown, The Death of the Messiah: From Gethsemane to the Grave (2 vols., ABRL 7; New York: Doubleday, 1994). In 1974, Professor Brown permitted me to participate in the doctoral seminar at the Union Theological Seminary in New York where he began to craft this work. That he let me do so before I was a doctoral candidate, and although I was a student "downtown" at the General Theological Seminary, exemplifies his gentle character.

[5] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 458.

[6] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 328-97.

[7] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 358.

[8] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 399, 408-28 and elsewhere.

[9] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 425, 557-60.

[10] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 560.

[11] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 434-60.

[12] V. Eppstein, "The Historicity of the Gospel Account of the Cleansing of the Temple," ZNW 55 (1964) 42-58.

[13] B. Mazar, "The Royal Stoa in the Southern Part of the Temple Mount," Proceedings of the American Academy for Jewish Research 46-47 (1979-80) 381-86; The Temple of the Lord (Garden City: Doubleday, 1975) 126.

[14] Galilean Rabbi and His Bible: Jesus’ Use of the Interpreted Scripture of His Time (Good News Studies 8; Wilmington: Glazier, 1984) 17-18; The Temple of Jesus. His Sacrificial Program Within a Cultural History of Sacrifice (University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1992) 91-107; A Feast of Meanings. Eucharistic Theologies from Jesus through Johannine Circles: Supplements to Novum Testamentum 72 (Leiden: Brill, 1994), 46-74.

[15] C. A. Evans, "Jesus and the ‘Cave of Robbers’: Towards a Jewish Context for the Temple Action," in Evans, Jesus and His Contemporaries: Comparative Studies (AGJU 25; Leiden: Brill, 1995) 345-65 (an article which earlier appeared in 1993).

[16] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 520-47.

[17] See, for example, V. Taylor, The Gospel according to St. Mark (London: Macmillan, 1966 [1st ed., 1952]), whenever the term "authority" (exousia) appears, for example at Mark 1:22.

[18] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 473-80.

[19] See Paula Fredricksen, Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. A Jewish Life and the Emergence of Christianity (New York: Knopf: 1999) and the review in Bible Review 16.4 (August, 2000) 54-58.

[20] Brown, The Death of the Messiah, 520-27.

[21] A discussion of these policies is available in Trading Places. The Intersecting Histories of Judaism and Christianity (with Jacob Neusner; Cleveland: Pilgrim, 1996; also Eugene: Wipf and Stock, 2004).

[22] See "James and the (Christian) Pharisees," When Judaism and Christianity Began. Essays in Memory of Anthony J. Saldarini I. Christianity in the Beginning: Supplements to the Journal for the Study of Judaism 85 (eds. A. J. Avery-Peck, D. Harrington, J. Neusner; Leiden: Brill, 2004) 19-47.

[23] For a treatment of these matters, see Rabbi Paul. An Intellectual Biography (New York: Doubleday, 2004).

 

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