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The Critical Danes and History:
How to Avoid Being Hit by the
Boomerang from Copenhagen

Works Consulted

Davies, Philip R. "Whose History? Whose Israel? Whose Bible? Biblical Histories, Ancient and Modern." In Lester L. Grabbe (ed.), Can a "History of Israel" Be Written? (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997) 104-122.

Erslev, Kristian. Historisk teknik. Den historiske undersøgelse fremstillet i sine grundlinier (Copenhagen: Jacob Erslevs Forlag, 1911).

Gissel, Jon A. P. Den indtrængende forstaaelse. Johannes Steenstrups historiesyn (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 2003).

Kjeldstadli, Knut. Fortiden er ikke hvad den har været (Frederiksberg: Roskilde Universitets Forlag, 2001).

Kofoed, Jens Bruun. Text and History (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2005).

-----------. "Epistemology, Historiographical Method, and the ‘Copenhagen School,’" in V. Philips Long, David W. Baker and Gordon J. Wenham (eds.), Windows into Old Testament History. Evidence, Argument, and the Crisis of "Biblical Israel" (Grand Rapids, Michigan and Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans, 2002) 23-43.

Lemche, Niels Peter. "How to do History. Methodological Reflections." Paper read at the SBL 2004 Annual Meeting. Published on Ralph W. Klein’s homepage at http://prophetess.lstc.edu/~rklein/Doctwo/howto.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.

-----------. "Conservative Scholarship-Critical Scholarship: Or How Did We Get Caught by This Bogus Discussion." The Bible and Interpretation (2003) [http://www.bibleinterp.com]. Accessed March 16, 2005.

------------. "On the Problem of Reconstructing Pre-Hellenistic Israelite (Palestinian) History," JHS 3 (2000-2001) [http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/JHS]. Accessed March 16, 2005.

------------. "Early Israel Revisited," CR:BS 4 (1996) 9-34.

Miller, J. Maxwell. "Is It Possible to Write a History of Israel without Relying on the Hebrew Bible?" in The Fabric of History (ed. Diana V. Edelman; JSOTSup 127; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991).

Steenstrup, Johannes. Historieskrivningen (Copenhagen: H. Hagerups Forlag, 1915).

Thompson, Thomas L. Early History of the Israelite People from the Written and Archaeological Sources (Leiden: Brill, 1992).

Notes

[1] "Conservative Scholarship-Critical Scholarship: Or How Did We Get Caught by This Bogus Discussion." The Bible and Interpretation (2003) [http://www.bibleinterp.com]. Accessed March 16, 2005.

[2] "On the Problem of Reconstructing Pre-Hellenistic Israelite (Palestinian) History," JHS 3 (2000-2001) [http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/JHS]. Accessed March 16, 2005.

[3] Answer to Donald Vance on the ANE mailing-list December 18th and 19th, 1999. Postings are archived and publically accesible at http://www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/ANE/ANE-DIGEST/1999.

[4] Text and History (Winona Lake: Eisenbrauns, 2005) 109-112; See also Jens Bruun Kofoed, "Epistemology, Historiographical Method, and the ‘Copenhagen School,’" in V. Philips Long, David W. Baker and Gordon J. Wenham (eds.), Windows into Old Testament History. Evidence, Argument, and the Crisis of "Biblical Israel" (Grand Rapids, Michigan and Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans, 2002) 23-43.

[5] P. R. Davies, "Whose History? Whose Israel? Whose Bible? Biblical Histories, Ancient and Modern." In Lester L. Grabbe (ed.), Can a "History of Israel" Be Written? (Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1997) 121–22.

[6] Ibid., p.122

[7] J. Maxwell Miller, "Is It Possible to Write a History of Israel without Relying on the Hebrew Bible?" in The Fabric of History (ed. Diana V. Edelman; JSOTSup 127; Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press, 1991) 100.

[8] Thomas L. Thompson, Early History of the Israelite People from the Written and Archaeological Sources (Leiden: Brill, 1992) 406, uses the term spectrum studies approach for his own and his colleague Niels Peter Lemche’s approach to the reconstruction of Israel’s history. Lemche speaks favorably of les Annales in "Early Israel Revisited," CR:BS 4 (1996) 20-22.

[9] A more lengthy argument can be found in Kofoed, "Epistemology." For a critique of the Annales School see Kofoed, Text and History, pp. 8-10, and the literature listed there.

[10] Niels Peter Lemche, "On the Problem of Reconstructing Pre-Hellenistic Israelite (Palestinian) History," JHS 3 (2000-2001) [http://www.arts.ualberta.ca/JHS]. Accessed March 16, 2005.

[11] Ibid.

[12] The paper has been published on Ralph W. Klein’s homepage at http://prophetess.lstc.edu/~rklein/Doctwo/howto.pdf. Accessed March 16, 2005.

[13] That is, Danish history c. 1200 CE.

[14] Kristian Erslev, Historisk teknik. Den historiske undersøgelse fremstillet i sine grundlinier (København: Jacob Erslevs Forlag, 1911) 9. All translations in the article from Erslev’s book are mine.

[15] Johannes Steenstrup, Historieskrivningen (Copenhagen: H. Hagerups Forlag, 1915) 214-15; Knut Kjeldstadli, Fortiden er ikke hvad den har været (Frederiksberg: Roskilde Universitets Forlag, 2001) 182. I owe Jon A.P. Gissel for the reference to Steenstrup’s critical remarks on the distinction between Bericht and Überreste. For those who read Danish, Gissel’s discussion on the issue can be found in Den indtrængende forstaaelse. Johannes Steenstrups historiesyn (Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanums Forlag, 2003) 441-43. For other references, cf. the literature listed in Kjeldstadli, Fortiden, p.189. Similar references can no doubt be found in other European and American standard textbooks.

[16] Note that Erslev here uses the Danish translation "levninger" (English "relics") of the German "Überreste" in a more restricted sense including only artefacts, autographs, and the like, while, e.g., secondhand sources (see below) fall in Erslev’s second category products, "frembringelse" in Danish.

[17] Erslev, Historisk Teknik, p.10.

[18] Ibid.

[19] Ibid., pp.40-41.

[20] Ibid., pp. 44-65; especially 44-45.

[21] The farther a copy is removed from the original the higher is the risk, of course, of textual corruption. The problem of textual corruption is always discussed separately in heuristic theory, however, and it is thus not relevant for the discussion on firsthand and secondhand sources.

[22] Ibid., 53; 59.

[23] Lemche, On the Problems, 4.2. p.6.

[24] The full argument is presented in my Text and History, pp. 33-112.

 

 

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