Skip to: Site Menu | Main content


Violence in the Bible: A Problem to be Solved?

Violence in the Bible: A Problem to be Solved


By Julia M. O’Brien
Lancaster Theological Seminary
Lancaster, PA (USA)
http://juliamobrien.net
March 2010


“Maybe the violence of the Bible isn’t a problem to be solved but rather an invitation to a conversation.”


The quote was voiced after a session of the “Violence and the Bible” seminar I’m teaching this semester. Keith, an insightful Doctor of Ministry student, was reflecting on the powerful things the difficult texts of the Hebrew Bible and New Testament have encouraged—even compelled—the class to discuss over the past six weeks.


Each Wednesday since the middle of February, we have found ourselves reflecting more deeply on how the violence described in the Bible resonates with the violence in our world and in our own lives. When we placed the book of Joshua in the historical context of anti-Assyrian politics during the time of King Josiah, we saw not only the power of violent rhetoric to enforce group solidarity in the sixth century BCE but also the way in which our own (U.S.) culture keeps people in line by feeding fear of foreigners: think McCarthyism and the Minute Men. When we painfully worked through the graphic depictions of rape in the Prophets and analyzed the gender scripts that make the imagery so effective, we better understood why rape of women continues to be a primary weapon of war, why rape of men remains the ultimate threat to masculinity, and why transgender folk face such violent retaliation; the Army chaplain in the class and the members of the Metropolitan Community Church affirmed that these ideologies are very much alive, as did a recent episode of CSI: SVU devoted to rape as a weapon of war in the Congo. When we explored biblical accounts of violence against children, several students shared their own experience of harm at the hands of family; many “got,” at a painful level, why Donald Capps thinks that the book of Hebrews was written by an abused child (The Child’s Song: The Religious Abuse of Children. Westminster John Knox, 1995), though not all found his description of a submissive Jesus equally satisfying.


Week after week, we keep seeing how “true” these texts are to human experience, how disturbingly contemporary they feel, how they are provoking us to talk about our histories of being harmed by violence and of perpetuating it.


Most of the authors that we’ve read, however, are following the road more frequently travelled: they treat biblical violence as a problem demanding a response. In Disturbing Divine Behavior: Troubling Old Testament Images of God (Fortress, 2009) , Eric Seibert offers a christocentric solution to Old Testament images of a violent God: because Jesus reveals a God who is kind to the wicked, nonviolent, does not punish people with infirmity or disaster, and is loving, any contrary biblical witness must be attributed to “mere” human perception. In Whispering the Word: Hearing Women’s Stories in the Old Testament (Westminster John Knox, 2005), Jacqueline Lapsley argues that when we recoil from the account of the Levite’s concubine (Judges 19-21), we are actually honoring the wishes of narrator, who goes to great lengths to make the Levite a supremely unsympathetic character and to portray him as the pinnacle (nadir?) of deplorable human behavior in a time before the judges reigned. Though the nature of her response is quite different, Cheryl Exum also takes action against biblical violence in her classic article, “The Ethics of Biblical Violence against Women” (in The Bible and Ethics: The Second Sheffield Colloquium. Sheffield, 1995). Exum insists that prophetic images of violence against women are so horrific that they must be acknowledged for the pornography that they are and rejected as authoritative in any way.


To be honest, most students in the seminar have liked the “fixes.” They breathed a sigh of relief after learning that Joshua might not really have annihilated the Canaanites and after Lapsley suggested that viewing Judges 19 as legitimating rape is a misinterpretation. Many confessed that they enrolled in the class desperate for any historical, literary, or theological insights that would allow them to keep believing that the Bible is indeed the Good Book.


But in the process of working with these texts I believe we’re beginning to think differently about what the Bible is good for. Instead of asking what the Bible teaches about violence, we’re experiencing how it encourages us to interrogate and reflect on the contemporary world. We’re finding that the Bible can be meaningful even when—and perhaps precisely when-- it doesn’t fit our standards of morality.


Is there a future for this kind of approach to the Bible, in which readers spend less time arguing about what the Bible teaches and more time in conversation about how its themes resonate with our world?



Would you like to tell a friend about this article? Click Here





Comments (6)


Julia:
I think it's very important to be able to discuss this reality of how violence is a part of our lives- and has been for so long. It may not be pleasant to think about rape and murder, but it is a reality. Fortunately it has not touched mnay of us personally, but we can not ignore the fact that it exists. I do not expect the Bible to tell me how to solve this problem, but rather to help me put it in the context of facing the realities of life.
#1 - Anna - 05/03/2010 - 11:16



Julia, what an excellent article. I agree with your refleshing approach to the Bible regarding the WAY WE USE IT. As more I use it in churches and in my personal devotional I see it as narrative of "description" vs. a narrative of "prescription." And those are the two basic arguments used among fundamentalist and progressive Christian leaders in the USA. We most admit that in the name of YHW many violent action has been done and still is happening in the world in name of the Christian faith. Us Christ-centered pacifist still need to examine Christ's action in light of his maleness and product of a patriarchal society. Ok I can't fix it, but can I strive to make sense of it??? Thanks for your thought provoking article.
#2 - Elizabeth Soto - 03/08/2011 - 13:35



Thanks for a great post.
I love the closing line that we need to ask less 'what the Bible teaches' and more time reflecting on how it resonates. Perhaps we need to spend time reflecting on how it interrogates too? Do we subtly stand with the perpetrators in these texts? Do we try to find simple justifications for the horrors? Or do we let it jolt us?
I love your work!
Matt
#3 - Matt Thiele - 08/27/2011 - 04:00



I am so glad I read your article. I've been researching women's issues, including violence against women. I look at television, religious text such as the Bible, Torah and Quran, to name a few. Your article offered a suggestion to look for ways to encourage conversations and opportunities to change and solve the problem. For violence against women still exists, even among the religions of man. In fact, some men still use their religion's text to justify abusing women: wives, daughters, etc. as well as not complying with the laws of the land concerning violence against their spouses. We have got to bring this into the light in order for women to heal and grow and men to grow. We all may need to check our attitudes, beliefs and philosophies concerning females in the universe. We're not going anywhere. We are here to stay and will not be eliminated from humanity not now or ever.
Thank you for the opportunity to comment.
#4 - Carol - 09/26/2011 - 19:39



PERHAPS THE VIOLENCE IN THE OLD TESTAMENT IS, INDEED,DESCRIPTIVE AND NOT PROSCRIPTIVE, AND MUST BE UNDERSTOOD FROM HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE. INDEEED, IN MANY WAYS, THE VIOLENCE IN THE BIBLE IS REFLECTIVE OF VIOLENCE IN MODERN TIMES. MY CONFUSION, HOWEVER, IS OVER OLD TESTAMENT CHRACTERS' FREQUENT BELIEFS THAT GOD WAS CALLING THEM TO COMMIT VIOLENCE, RAPE, AND DECIMATION AGAINST VARIOUS TRIBES. IS THIS JUST A JUSTIFICATION THAT CHARACTERS USED TO GO TO WAR, OR WAS GOD ACTUALLY CALLING THEM TO WAR? IN SOME CASES, IT APPEARS THAT GOD WAS CALLING HIS PEOPLE, THE ISRAELITES, TO WAR AGAINST SETTLED PEOPLES.
#5 - TERRI - 10/16/2011 - 00:35



As a young christian it was especially Genesis 22:1-10 as well as the book of Joshua that gave me pause to question my beief. Not to question my faith, but to question my religion and religions in general. After years of reading, learning and living, well into my 50's, I can say my faith could not be stronger, and my feeling of religion could not be lower. Religions speak for and defines that which we should simply have faith in. Then we use those definitions and words of "God" to justify our actions beliefs laws and rules instead of taking full responsiblity for them. The three great religions rooted in the "God" of Genesis 22 will always bring trouble to the world. Because the mental mechanism that allows one to believe in such a "god" is incapable of rising above the gravity of violence and self-righteousness. Until true faith without dogma prevails, there will always be violence.
#6 - Bill Paul - 07/30/2013 - 12:32






Use the form below to submit a new comment. Comments are moderated
and logged, and may be edited. You must provide your full name.
Inappropriate material will not be posted.

Name
E-mail (Will not appear online)
Comment